How Can Two Different Ligands Cause The Same Cellular Response?

How can Different cells respond differently to the same signal?

The specific way in which a cell reacts to its environment varies.

In many cases, the same signal molecule binds to identical receptor proteins yet produces very different responses in different types of target cells, reflecting differences in the internal machinery to which the receptors are coupled (Figure 15-9)..

How can a target cell’s response to a single hormone?

However, a given hormone usually affects only a limited number of cells, which are called target cells. A target cell responds to a hormone because it bears receptors for the hormone. … In very basic terms, binding of hormone to receptor triggers a cascade of reactions within the cell that affects function.

What do second messengers do?

Second messengers are molecules that relay signals received at receptors on the cell surface — such as the arrival of protein hormones, growth factors, etc. … But in addition to their job as relay molecules, second messengers serve to greatly amplify the strength of the signal.

Can different cells respond to the same hormone?

Cells can have many receptors for the same hormone but often also possess receptors for different types of hormones. The number of receptors that respond to a hormone determines the cell’s sensitivity to that hormone, and the resulting cellular response.

What are the three main types of signals can cells receive?

Membrane receptors fall into three major classes: G-protein-coupled receptors, ion channel receptors, and enzyme-linked receptors.

What type of signaling is epinephrine?

If you’re nervous before a test or competition, your adrenal gland is likely to be pumping out epinephrine. When epinephrine binds to its receptor on a muscle cell (a type of G protein-coupled receptor), it triggers a signal transduction cascade involving production of the second messenger molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP).

What happens when a ligand binds to a receptor?

The ligand crosses the plasma membrane and binds to the receptor in the cytoplasm. The receptor then moves to the nucleus, where it binds DNA to regulate transcription. … Many signaling pathways, involving both intracellular and cell surface receptors, cause changes in the transcription of genes.

How does a signal activate intracellular changes?

When a ligand binds to a cell-surface receptor, the receptor’s intracellular domain (part inside the cell) changes in some way. Generally, it takes on a new shape, which may make it active as an enzyme or let it bind other molecules. The change in the receptor sets off a series of signaling events.

What do all hormones have in common?

Answer and Explanation: The correct answer: The character that all hormones have in common is (c) They bind to and interact with a receptor in the target cell. The hormone action specifically takes place in the target cell with the help of specific receptors that are present in the cell.

How do ligands work?

In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex. The bonding with the metal generally involves formal donation of one or more of the ligand’s electron pairs.

What is an example of cell signaling?

An example is the conduction of an electric signal from one nerve cell to another or to a muscle cell. … Once a signaling molecule binds to its receptor it causes a conformational change in it that results in a cellular response. The same ligand can bind to different receptors causing different responses (e.g..

What are the 4 types of cell signaling?

There are four categories of chemical signaling found in multicellular organisms: paracrine signaling, endocrine signaling, autocrine signaling, and direct signaling across gap junctions.

Do steroid hormones require a second messenger?

The binding of a steroid hormone forms a hormone-receptor complex that affects gene expression in the nucleus of the target cell. The binding of a non-steroid hormone activates a second messenger that affects processes within the target cell.

What is the difference between a ligand and a receptor?

A ligand (in the context of biochemistry, not chemistry) is a general term for any molecule that binds to another molecule. … A receptor, on the other hand, is a protein to which a signalling molecule (such as a neurotransmitter, drug, or hormone) binds specifically and stimulates a particular response by a cell.

What is a cellular response?

The binding of chemical signals to their corresponding receptors induces events within the cell that ultimately change its behaviour. Others activate membrane enzymes, which produce certain intracellular chemical mediators. …